IgG and IgM antibodies are the abbreviations for immunoglobulin –G and immunoglobulin –M antibodies. Immunoglobulin is nothing but the antibodies that our body generates to fight potentially harmful substances. Each antibody is different from one another.
What is the purpose of immunoglobulin tests?
The IgG and IgM antibodies tests check for the presence of the following medical conditions in a person’s body:
● Infection caused by virus or bacteria
● Autoimmune disorders
● Specific types of cancer
The immunoglobulin tests check for the presence of the following symptoms:
● If a person keeps getting viral or bacterial infections
● Lung or sinus infections
● Immunodeficiency in genetics
Let us talk about the two major antibodies that our body creates when suspicious of infections:
1. Immunoglobulin-G (IgG)
● The IgG is in almost all the fluids of the body. Amongst various antibodies that our body generates for our protection, igg is the most common one out there.
● These antibodies are essential to fight off infections caused by a virus or bacteria.
● Created by the plasma B cells, IgG antibodies protect the tissues from potential infection. IgG antibodies are divided into four categories: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4.
● The most unique feature of this antibody is that it is the only antibody that our body creates that can travel all through the placenta from the mother to the fetus. This feature protects the fetus from any infection.
● The largest antibodies that our body creates are IgM.
● It is the first antibody created to protect our body when suspicious of harmful invaders. These antibodies provoke other components of the immunity system to work on eliminating these invaders.
● IgM, the body’s natural antibody, requires no pre-immunization to act on catching and destroying the antigens that enter the body.
● The rate by which an IgM antibody starts acting on the method of immunization of the body is extremely fast.
What if our bodies don’t have normal levels of IgG/IgM antibodies?
● If our bodies are deprived of the IgG antibodies, there are high chances of getting infected by sinus, ear, or gastrointestinal infections; pneumonia; or conditions that might affect the throat.
Apart from that, a high deficiency of IgG antibodies may cause kidney damage or leukaemia. However, an excessive amount of IgG antibodies can lead to serious medical conditions like HIV/AIDS or certain types of cancer.
● If a person’s body is deficient in the IgM antibodies, there are high risks of contracting fungal infections. Low manufacturing of IgM antibodies can also lead to personal pneumonia, diarrhoea, and other serious medical conditions.
Similarly, excessive manufacturing of IgM antibodies may put a person at risk of acquiring various autoimmune diseases, kidney damage, or certain types of cancer.
How is the IgG/IgM test taken?
The procedures for IgG and IgM antibodies tests are the same. The process involves drawing a small amount of blood from the patient’s veins of the arms. This blood is then tested for pathogens.
What do your test results mean?
- The test results of the IgG antibodies indicate either the high level or the low level.
- If the test results of your IgG antibodies indicate high levels, there are chances that the patient has some infection. Along with the presence of an infection, the high levels of IgG antibodies may also indicate the presence of an autoimmune disease.
- If the test results of your IgG antibodies indicate low levels, there are chances that your body is deficient in proteins. The deficiency can be from a response due to a disease or diabetes.
- Like the IgG antibodies test, the test for IgM is also in terms of high and low levels.
- If the test results of your IgM antibodies indicate high levels, your body might be infected with macroglobulinemia, primary systematic amyloidosis, or monoclonal gammopathy.
- If the test results of your IgM antibodies indicate low levels, your body might be deficient in immunity.
The tests of both IgG and IgM antibodies have always held major importance in the field of medical science. The terms IgG and IgM antibodies testing were used often in this global pandemic that we survived.
One of the basic tests for detecting the presence of coronavirus in someone’s body was the antigen test, accompanied b checking the status of IgG and IgM antibodies. With such a crucial test, a person must be aware of what the information on their report means. Upon proper understanding of the test results, the patients can go about treating their conditions effectively.