Rabbits remain one of the most useful animals for polyclonal antibody production (pAbs). A few years ago, global researchers and leaders in the research industry began using custom rabbit monoclonal antibody production with phage. They consider it as the right alternative to rodent-derived bodies.
What is Antibody Production?
Antibody production refers to producing and preparing a sample of antigens, including their safe injection into certain farm animals or laboratories. They express specific antigen antibodies level in the serum, which can be retrieved from the animal.
What are monoclonal antibodies?
This refers to a body produced by cloning a unique white blood cell. Other antibodies derived from cloning a unique white blood cell find their way back to a unique parent cell. These antibodies can have a single affinity; that is, they are bound to a single epitope.
Why are Rabbits preferred for antibody production?
Rabbits remain one of the most useful animals for polyclonal antibody production (pAbs). For the last few years, global researchers and leaders in the research industry have used custom rabbit monoclonal antibody production through phage. They consider it as the right alternative to rodent-derived bodies. Certain advantages are derived in using rabbits over other animals, including mouse-derived antibodies.
In the 1970s, researchers adopted mice as a dominant host for antibody production since hybridoma tech was detected. However, there was another broad expansion of knowledge about the immune system of various species. As a result, a wide range of uniqueness and advantages have been discovered in other hosts, being the major point of attraction for research projects.
Rabbits monoclonal antibodies
A few reasons have seen rabbits preferred being the first to capture the attention of scientists. Different from the immune systems of other rodents, rabbits have a capable recognition of wider Antigens diversity. Fortunately, the production of antibodies by rabbits tends to be helpful in the exhibition of a reasonable amount of higher affinity, especially against the origination of human epitome. It also tends to be helpful against an immunogenic epitope in mice.
Custom rabbit monoclonal antibody production is useful in wider areas of research works. They are applicable in different areas such as immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, western blot, and ELISA. Unlike other models of animals such as mice or rats, rabbits have been found to provide researchers a better system for producing monoclonal antibodies. This is because responses to antigens from rabbits’ immune systems are broad. Assessing rabbits physically as an animal, they are large animals with larger spleens, which can help produce additional antibodies.
The consistency in rabbit monoclonal antibodies has some similarities with the traditional mouse monoclonal antibodies. However, rabbits’ monoclonal antibodies are more specific and sensitive. The immunization of rabbits results in spleen cells connected to partner cells for making an immortal cell line that expresses antibodies.
Advantages of rabbit monoclonal antibodies
Rabbits are not just preferred for antibody production over other animals. They offer a wide range of advantages to researches. Rabbits have a larger spleen because their natural repertoire has more diversity than mice or other animals. As a result, rabbits’ antibodies exhibit a higher affinity for the antigen. They are also sensitive when it comes to the application for which the clones are screened. Also, they have the extra advantage of diversification, which allows for recognizing epitopes that may not have feasibility with other systems.
Rabbit monoclonal antibodies have also be found to have the following additional advantages such as
- Creating ease for humanity
- They can easily recognize the epitope
- They are cross-creative to human and mouse targets
- They can diversify naturally
- High affinity and specificity
Rabbits immune response production
Just as it is with the immune response of humans, the production of antibodies in rabbits is done by the complex interaction between antigen-presenting cells (APC), T cells, and B cells which, in turn, differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells. The major response of immune result in the formation of IgM isotype, and later move up to 20 mg/ml) or IgA (up to 4 mg/ml) secretion. As of now, no hemoglobin is seen in the IgD isotype in rabbits. Furthermore, different from other species, no difference in the IgG isotype of rabbits into various sub-classes.
Rabbits vs. Mouse Polyclonal antibody production
Researchers prefer rabbits’ polyclonal antibodies to mice, especially for diagnostics and analytical reports. This preference is attributed to three different reasons. First is the relationship with the physical size of rabbits. They are always larger than the common rodents for antibody generation. Due to their large size, they produce a larger amount of antisera.
Additionally, rabbits help generate antibodies against antigens that find it difficult to elicit an immune response in rodents. Lastly, polyclonal antibodies in rabbits are preferred because they have a proven track record of antisera. These antisera have been found to have a higher titer of antibodies with high sensitivity, including an affinity towards a set target.
The application of certain antibodies in clinical aspects may need to be verified and undergo immunization to be certain of their safety, including rabbit monoclonal antibodies. The application of previous techniques applied to the humanization of mouse-derived antibodies also has a successful application to rabbit antibodies humanization. However, as of this moment, only one rabbit-derived antibody (Brolucizumab) has a successful clinical application. Researchers have, however, preferred to use rabbits for clinical research works than any other species.